HCS 245 Week 1 Introduction to Health and Disease

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A Look at Heart Disease

Heart disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women in the United States. Taking the lives of 40% of people in the United States each year, more than any other type of cancer taken together (WebMD, 2013). Because obesity makes the heart work harder, it plays a big role in these deaths. The absence of appropriate preventive care is a further factor in these devastating numbers. Despite the recommendation to seek medical attention when feeling unwell, heart symptoms frequently manifest as day-to-day fatigue, muscle soreness, or heartburn. People frequently disregard the potentially lethal nature of symptoms and wait for them to go away simply. The severity of heart disease varies depending on the diagnosis, but the warning signs and symptoms frequently remain the same.

Any condition that damages or impairs cardiac function is considered a heart disease. Any condition that affects the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart muscle is included in this. The term “heart disease” covers a wide range of conditions that affect the heart, including the following: coronary conduit infection, cardiovascular breakdown, and angina. Two significant circumstances add to the reason for coronary illness; atherosclerosis which includes stores of greasy substances, cholesterol, cell waste, and calcium in the covering of a vein. It begins because of raised degrees of cholesterol, hypertension, and tobacco smoke. The most well-known of these in the US is coronary conduit sickness, which might prompt coronary failure, angina, cardiovascular breakdown, and arrhythmias. More than 385,000 people die annually from coronary heart disease or CAD (Prevention, 2013). 

Shortness of breath, nausea, sweating, palpitations, elevated heart rate, weakness, dizziness, vomiting, anxiety, discomfort in the chest, muscle or body pain, swelling, and persistent cough are some of the warning signs. Risk factors for heart disease include high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, obesity, and inactivity. Age is also a factor; men and women over 55 are more likely to get it. Contrary to popular belief, this category includes significantly more diseases than just heart attacks. The disease, most frequently coronary heart disease, causes heart attacks. Heart disease is one of the five health conditions with the highest costs.

HCS 245 Week 1 Introduction to Health and Disease

 Because of how they live their lives, Americans are more likely to get these diseases. A diet that is good for your heart tries to cut back on sodium, saturated fat, and trans-fatty acids, all of which are linked to high blood cholesterol and a higher risk of heart disease. It likewise empowers the expanded admission of monounsaturated fat, Omega 3 unsaturated fats, and dissolvable fiber that assists with bringing down blood cholesterol levels and decreasing the gamble of coronary illness. There are many different factors that can lead to heart disease, some of which cannot be explained, and even genetics. Notwithstanding, one can assume command over our own well-being and assist with lessening superfluous put factors in our lives in danger. One of the most common risk factors for heart disease is smoking, which damages blood vessels in the heart and stops atherosclerosis, which is the narrowing of arteries. Nicotine, the active ingredient in cigarettes, causes atherosclerosis and makes the heart work harder. Quitting smoking can improve a person’s health significantly within a year. “Eating a special diet called the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan can help protect your heart,” states “Mayo Clinic” (2013). Consuming foods that are low in salt, cholesterol, and fat is part of the DASH diet. Five non-medicinal ways to prevent heart disease: Eating fresh fruits, vegetables, whole grains, unprocessed foods, other low-fat protein sources, low-fat dairy products, and some fish can also lower one’s risk of heart disease. Obesity is associated with high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes. (MayoClinic, 2013) The extra weight can cause serious heart conditions because it forces the heart to work harder. Ordinary well-being screenings are an unquestionable requirement. One should be proactive and assume command over one’s own well-being. One can find the right treatment and care plan to reduce, prevent, or treat conditions like high blood pressure or cholesterol by getting checked and tested on a regular basis.

In 2002 this helped with representing a significant extent of well-being uses. Most of the time, people who have a chronic condition will also have other illnesses or conditions. The United States spent approximately $62.3 billion on the five most common chronic conditions. Heart disease is one of five major chronic conditions that affect 25% of the population in the United States. When the extra circumstances or sicknesses are added in, it bounces the expense of medical services uses to a faltering $270 billion, which addresses 49% of complete medical services costs as per 1996 MEPS information. The cost of health care and health insurance has gone up significantly as a result of these expensive conditions (Stanton, 2006).

HCS 245 Week 1 Introduction to Health and Disease

The narrowing of the blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood to the heart muscle is known as coronary artery disease (CHD). According to Mayo (2013), high cholesterol, high blood pressure, obesity, tobacco use, and blood clots are the causes of CHD. This can frequently prompt a Myocardial Dead tissue (MI) or Intense Myocardial Localized necrosis (AMI), otherwise called cardiovascular failure. A chronic condition known as cardiomyopathy can result in an enlarged and thickened heart muscle. Arrhythmias, or irregular heartbeats, can result from this disease, which weakens the heart frequently and can cause heart failure. Cardiomyopathy can be caused by chronic high blood pressure, viral infections, previous heart attacks, thyroid disease, diabetes, excessive alcohol or drug use, genetic conditions, and even unidentified causes. 

Infections, physical activity, pregnancy, fever, anemia, hyperthyroidism, congenital problems like a hole in the heart muscle, and valve issues are typically the causes of heart murmurs. A heart mumble is the sporadic beat of the heart muscle. The sporadic musicality causes interferences of the bloodstream to the body and further adds pressure to the heart muscle to address the beat (Mayo, 2013) and may happen when the bloodstream isn’t smooth through the valves. A heart murmur may typically indicate nothing to be concerned about, but it may also be a sign of a heart abnormality and should be examined by a doctor. A narrowing of the valve in valvular heart disease, such as valvular stenosis, can make it difficult for blood to flow through the heart. This limited bloodstream can cause a cardiovascular breakdown. When the heart valve doesn’t work right, blood doesn’t flow properly through the heart. This condition is called valvular insufficiency. It’s also possible to avoid calling it a leaky valve.

Another common problem with the heart is arrhythmia, which occurs when the electrical impulses do not control the heartbeat. The heart may beat rapidly, slowly, or irregularly as a result of this. Arrhythmias may resemble a racing or fluttering heartbeat. Atrial fibrillation is the point at which the offices of the heart are not cooperating and cause an Unpredictable and most times, a fast heartbeat somewhere in the range of 100 and 175 pulsates each moment. The body gets less blood from this. Palpitations in the heart, weakness, and shortness of breath are some of these symptoms. Although not life-threatening, it required immediate medical attention. Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a condition in which the heart fails to pump enough blood to the body’s organs. A buildup of fluids in the body and around the heart and lungs can frequently result from this. Swelling of the feet and ankles, fatigue, and shortness of breath are all symptoms of CHF. It has the potential to affect every organ and cause heart failure if left untreated. Intrinsic coronary illness is a sickness of the heart that somebody is brought into the world with; it is most regularly an imperfection in the muscle, the mass of the heart, or a heart valve deformity.

HCS 245 Week 1 Introduction to Health and Disease

A person with heart disease, regardless of its severity, should follow a doctor’s advice to adopt a healthier lifestyle that does not interfere with treatment. One change is to watch your eating routine all the more cautiously and incorporate eating a low-fat and low-sodium diet. One who has this illness ought to attempt to get 30 minutes of practice in a day. Smoking is another change in lifestyle that needs to be addressed. This patient needs to stop smoking as soon as possible. In some cases, the disease necessitates medication. The prescription could assist with a lower pulse, some utilization diuretics, (ACE) inhibitors, or beta blockers. The well-known aspirin is the most frequently mentioned medication. Some patients respond well to simply taking an aspirin every day. Prescriptions may be made for cholesterol medications like fibrates or statins. A common procedure is coronary angioplasty, in which a small balloon is used to unblock a blocked artery. The artery is then opened with a stent. The other method that might be done is a coronary vein sidestep. A vein is typically taken from the leg during this procedure and connected to the blocked artery (Mayo, 1998–2013).

Heart disease is one of five major health issues that affect the most people and is the most expensive for the health care system in the United States. A single disorder cannot define heart disease; there are numerous changes in the sickness. There are acquired and congenital disorders among these. Heart disease acquired can frequently be avoided, despite the fact that little can be done to prevent it. To determine the cause of a particular episode, diagnostic procedures, both invasive and noninvasive, can be carried out. Both the patient and the healthcare system spend a lot of money and time on these diagnostic tests. Common treatments include alterations in lifestyle, surgical intervention, and medication therapy. Physical and occupational therapies, as well as ongoing prescription therapies, add to the cost of health care following a cardiac event. It doesn’t end there. The cost of health care rises as a result of heart disease’s long-term effects on the body. Chronic conditions and rising costs are exacerbated by secondary conditions like kidney failure and peripheral vascular disease. Heart disease prevention is essential. Changes to one’s lifestyle, including eating well and exercising, can help prevent heart disease from occurring in the first place, ensuring good health, a long lifespan, and time and money savings. HCS 245 Week 1 Introduction to Health and Disease


Mayoclinic. (1998-2013). Retrieved from 


MedicineNet.com. (2013). Retrieved from 


Prevention, V. F. (2013, September 25). Heart Disease Facts. Retrieved from CDC.Gov

Stanton, M.A., Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. 2006.The High Concentration of U.S. Health Care Expenditures. Research in Action, Issue 19. Retrieved from