NR 325 Bobby Davis Pre-Simulation Work

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Acute renal failure is characterized by significant changes in kidney function, necessitating prompt intervention to prevent further deterioration and the development of chronic kidney failure. This article concisely overviews acute renal failure, its types, pathophysiological changes, fluid and electrolyte disturbances, medical and nursing management, and preventive measures.

Pathophysiological Changes in Acute Renal Failure:

Acute renal failure leads to the impairment of kidney function, accumulating waste products such as creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in the blood. Reduced urine output, known as oliguria, contributes to fluid retention and the buildup of waste products, leading to generalized edema. Electrolyte imbalances, metabolic acidosis, hypertension, and cardiovascular complications may also occur.

NR 325 Bobby Davis Pre-Simulation Work

Types of Acute Renal Failure:

Pre-renal failure: Caused by reduced renal blood flow due to factors like dehydration or disruptions in the blood supply.

Intra-renal failure: Occurs when the kidney tissues are directly damaged, often due to prolonged ischemia or exposure to nephrotoxic substances.

Post-renal failure: Caused by an obstruction that hinders urine outflow from the kidneys.

Diagnosis of Acute Renal Failure:

Thorough evaluation, including medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests (blood tests, urinalysis, imaging studies), is necessary to differentiate between the types of renal failure and identify the underlying cause accurately.

Fluid and Electrolyte Disturbances:

Acute renal failure commonly leads to electrolyte imbalances such as hyperkalemia, hypophosphatemia, and hypocalcemia. Fluid balance disruptions, including hypervolemia, may also occur, necessitating careful monitoring and interventions to restore and maintain proper levels.

Medical and Nursing Management:

NR 325 Bobby Davis Pre-Simulation Work

Treatment of acute renal failure involves addressing the underlying cause, fluid restriction, and diuretic therapy. Electrolyte imbalances may be managed with specific interventions such as insulin and sodium bicarbonate for hyperkalemia. Nursing management includes vital sign monitoring, fluid balance assessment, urine output monitoring, and comprehensive patient assessments to detect complications.

Use of Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate Enemas:

Sodium polystyrene sulfonate enemas are utilized to lower potassium levels in hyperkalemia. Nurses should be aware of the therapeutic effect of diarrhea and closely monitor patients for signs of sodium and water retention.

Complications of Dialysis and Preventive Measures:

Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis can lead to complications such as hypotension, muscle cramps, blood loss, hepatitis, infections, and occlusions. Nurses can prevent these complications by monitoring hypervolemia, educating patients to rise slowly after dialysis, assessing insertion sites for disease, and ensuring shunt patency.

NR 325 Bobby Davis Pre-Simulation Work

Teaching Plan for Acute Renal Failure Patients:

Patient education should focus on disease understanding, prevention strategies, fluid and nutritional management, and recognition of recurring symptoms. Managing comorbid conditions is also essential to prevent kidney failure recurrence.

Implications of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA):

MRSA is a drug-resistant bacteria that poses challenges in treating Staphylococcus infections, increasing the risk of sepsis. Diagnosis is done through wound cultures; infected patients should be placed on contact isolation.

Preventing In-Hospital Acquired MRSA:

Standard precautions, such as hand hygiene, gowning, and gloving, are crucial to protect patients from in-hospital-acquired MRSA. Thorough cleaning and disinfection of reusable equipment are necessary before use with another patient.