NSG 456 Week 2 Ethical Issues Assessment

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Ethical Issues in Research

It is unbelievable to examine the human history and observe unethical methods utilized for medical experimentation. The Nazi regime carried out horrendous and appalling experiments on innocent Jews. The investigation of syphilis in African American men in the Tuskegee Syphilis study is stunning and disgraceful. That’s what to see, in the course of my life, doctors were leading analyses on accidental patients in the Jewish Constant Illness Emergency clinic study, and on kids in the Willow Brook study is so horrendous and dishonorable. I find it hard to believe that the idea of “doing no harm” wasn’t realized until the late 1970s (Grove et al., 2014).

Ethical conduct must be a top priority for all researchers, despite the fact that the objective of the research is to improve human health and hopefully discover novel, safe treatments for diseases. Utilizing the seven ethical research principles will not only assist and direct researchers but also safeguard the safety of patient volunteers and scientific integrity. In the following, I will discuss these tenets and how they relate to the question, “Should peril-menopausal women begin taking hormone replacement therapy to alleviate the symptoms of menopause in a safe manner?” (2000).

NSG 456 Week 2 Ethical Issues Assessment

Social and clinical worth: Despite the fact that menopause isn’t an illness, a condition at last influences all ladies, and the side effects can be hopeless for some. The social and clinical benefit of addressing the inquiry, ‘Should peril-menopausal ladies start taking chemical substitution to lighten the side effects of menopause and do so securely’ is essential to all ladies entering this great time whether they are rich or poor, taught, or uninformed. By answering this question, I believe society can get useful data, and this data is valuable enough for me to ask women to accept the risk that I am taking by using bio-identical hormones to alleviate their menopausal symptoms (Emanuel et al., 2000).

Validity in the scientific community I believe that this is a significant inquiry that can be addressed in a methodical and comprehensive manner. Hormone replacement therapy has existed for women and continues to exist. It is possible to design a study that examines the many women who choose to take hormone replacement therapy and the many women who choose not to take hormone replacement therapy over a predetermined time period. Also, it is avoided that all women go through menopause because there aren’t enough women in the study (Emanuel et al., 2000).

NSG 456 Week 2 Ethical Issues Assessment

Scientific validity: As referenced above, ladies who take chemical substitution treatment and ladies who decide not to would be the gathering of study subjects. These women could be from any ethnic or racial background. In order to make this a research study that is both ethical and fair, unethical selection of women, such as those who are disadvantaged or vulnerable, can be avoided. Emanuel et al., 2000).

Positive risk-to-benefit ratio We are aware that we are investigating the safety of hormone replacement therapy here. We must investigate whether using the hormones poses a risk of harm, and if so, whether the benefits outweigh the risks. We avoid exploiting the women in the study by ensuring this (Emanuel et al., 2000).

Favorable risk-benefit ratio: An independent review is when a panel with no vested interest in the study looks for potential conflicts of interest prior to the study. This board as well as an institutional survey board panel will audit the examination concentrate as it keeps on guaranteeing that the examiner carrying out the groundwork study is doing so morally (Emanuel et al., 2000).

NSG 456 Week 2 Ethical Issues Assessment

The term “informed consent” refers to a situation in which the women who will be participating in the study have been made aware of the objectives, methods, risks, and benefits of the study. They must comprehend the information, receive responses to all of their inquiries, and participate in the study voluntarily and without being pressured to do so. (Emanuel et al.,) This is a crucial part of a research study. 2000). Respect for potential and enrolled subjects For the research study to be ethical, all subjects must be treated with respect, regardless of whether they have signed up to participate.

Then, every subject’s privacy and information must be protected throughout the study. Recognize that the subject may alter their mind at any time during the investigation. Even if it could cause the subject to leave the study, new, unexpected information must be shared with them. The subject’s health must be monitored, and if they have adverse reactions, they must be treated and, if necessary, taken out of the study. Finally, the subjects must be informed of the study’s findings (Emanuel et al., 2000).


In conclusion, I hope that the atrocities committed in the name of medical research will never occur again. When considering a clinical research study, adhering to the seven principles outlined above can guarantee an ethical undertaking for all parties involved, including the research subjects (Emanuel et al., 2000).


Emanuel, E. J., Wendler, D., & Grady, C. (2000). What makes clinical research ethical? JAMA, 283(20), 2701–2711.


Grove, S. K., Gray, J. R., & Burns, N. (2014). Understanding nursing research (6th ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences.