NURS FPX 4000 Assessment 3 Attempt 2 Applying Ethical Principles

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Ethical Principles

NURS FPX 4000 Assessment 3 Attempt 2 Applying Ethical Principles

Ethics are rules that help an individual in living a good life. These rules help in making decisions. Being a doctor has many responsibilities like helping others, keeping patients safe, and considering their values and wishes. In Community Hospital, Ana was delivered to Jenna and Chris. As a result of the birth, the parents and Ana have formed a strong attachment, and they have made it clear that they intend to raise Ana in the most natural way possible. The Smiths will not vaccinate Ana for the first six months, and she will be breastfed solely. The case study is about a family not agreeing to get their daughter vaccinated. The Smiths are well-educated and say they’ve done extensive research on immunizations and concluded that the risks exceed the benefits (Nakatudde et al., 2019).

The first thing that Dr. Kerr says is that, despite the recent controversy surrounding vaccines, she strongly advises Ana to get her entire round of shots. According to Dr. Kerr, who claims that vaccines have prevented millions of deaths in the last century, children have significantly benefited from vaccines. Vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b, for example, has led to a drop in the number of cases of the potentially fatal infection. Individuals who are not protected against a pathogen, as in the case of the recent measles outbreak, are often the cause of epidemics like those seen in the past. Some children even have a weak immune system. Some doctors believe that these youngsters’ immunization is impossible due to medical reasons. Others are too young to be vaccinated against specific diseases. According to Dr. Kerr, after weighing the risks and advantages of immunization, most states require immunizations before children can enroll in school. However, some states allow parents to opt-out of vaccinating their children in certain circumstances (Nakatudde et al., 2019).

Dr. Kerr’s explanation has been understood by Jenna and Chris Smith, who reiterate that they do not wish to have Ana vaccinated at this time. Dr. Kerr is unsure what to do next and what ethical considerations must be made here.

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 Facts of the Case Study

The four major principles of ethical considerations are (1) Justice, (2) Beneficence, (3) Autonomy, and (4) non-maleficence.  In the West, patients’ autonomy is given a lot of respect. The European notion of respecting patients’ privacy is intertwined with the privacy rights. autonomy. In this case study, as per the autonomy principle, as the child is only five days old and cannot speak for herself, it is legally the right of her guardians to decide for her. The ethical concerns are that when Ana will grow up, what if she does not agree with her parents. It is important to protect her autonomy as well. Her right to decide for herself will be compromised (Zhang et al., 2021). The risk of disease-related death isn’t the only medical repercussion of not getting vaccinated. For unvaccinated children, long-term consequences could put them in danger. Your child’s immunization status must be communicated to medical workers if you contact 911, take an ambulance, visit a doctor, or enter a hospital emergency room (Rainer et al., 2018). As a result, medical professionals may be less familiar and experienced with the methods required to care for your child effectively if they are unvaccinated. Exclusion and quarantine are two possible outcomes of not vaccinating your child. Children who are sick or have been exposed to disease may have to be isolated from their friends and family. If a disease outbreak in your area, you may be requested to remove your child from school and other organized activities, leading your child to miss school and special events. Work and household income may be affected by your child’s medical condition or a lack of ability to perform daily tasks. Pregnant women who have not been vaccinated may be at risk of contracting infections that could jeopardize their unborn child. Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) can result in cardiac abnormalities, developmental delays, and deafness in a child whose mother has rubella during the first trimester. If their child becomes unwell due to a lack of vaccination, parents who refuse to vaccinate their children put other people at risk. Some people, notably those with weakened immune systems, cannot be vaccinated (e.g., those with leukemia or other cancers). These people are at risk of infection unless the broader public is protected against it by vaccination (Nakatudde et al., 2019).

Effectiveness of Communication

If the doctor does not communicate to the parents properly about the necessity of vaccination, the community members could be infected by your child’s illness. Vaccine-preventable infections can be spread by unvaccinated children in the community and at school. Unvaccinated youngsters can infect babies who are too young to be fully inoculated. Unvaccinated youngsters can infect people of any age. In this category are people of all ages with leukemia or other forms of cancer, immune system issues, or those undergoing immunosuppressant therapies or drugs. It is important to protect the privacy of the patients and not allow any information to be leaked. The healthcare workers in a community have access to technology and it can help in communicating. In the healthcare industry, it’s crucial to have effective communication abilities (Rainer et al., 2018). Good communication can build up the trust level between patients and doctors. It increases patients’ safety (Sim et al., 2019). Following significant research evaluations, a few methods for speaking with patients or associated family are listed below (Dawson et al., 2020).

  1. Be Humble

The healthcare staff should be humble and polite. 

  1. Be conscious of what you say

Communicating with the patients is a necessity. Use easy words and be straightforward.

  1. Let Patients and their families speak

It is important to clarify any confusions that the patients may have.

In the case study mentioned above, Dr. Smith would employ all available strategies to persuade Ana’s family and relatives to act responsibly. 

Effectiveness Approaches

Herd immunity can be achieved if enough people in your community have been inoculated against a particular disease. Since the majority of individuals have immunity, diseases can’t spread quickly. Even those who cannot be vaccinated, such as infants, will be protected by this measure. Herd immunity also inhibits outbreaks by making it difficult for the disease to spread. Eventually, the disease will become extinct in the community altogether. Understand parents’ worries and deliver the necessary information (Varkey, 2021).

NURS FPX 4000 Assessment 3 Attempt 2 Applying Ethical Principles

Even though most parents in the United States favor vaccines, you will encounter parents who aren’t. The refusal to follow the recommended vaccine schedule or dispute your strong suggestion does not necessarily mean that a parent will not accept immunizations if they have doubts or reservations. Occasionally, parents want to know what you have to say. Trust in your recommendation will grow if you are willing to listen to their problems.

As you listen to parents’ inquiries, please make an effort to comprehend their concerns before answering with the information they may not have asked for. It’s best to acknowledge the parent’s concerns and offer what you know if you receive inquiries or information from sources, you aren’t familiar with. Let them know that you’d be happy to evaluate their gathered information and set up a follow-up meeting if necessary. The effective approaches include (1) leadership- the doctors should be able to work in a healthy environment. They should be able to guide the patients and nurses properly (Audrey et al., 2020). (2) The doctors should know that they will not always succeed so they should be humble and communicate properly. (3) Doctors should be accountable. They should set an example for others to follow. (4) The routines followed by the healthcare community should be flexible and up-to-par. (5) The doctors should appreciate their teams. (6) Timelines should be set for achieving any goals (Zhang et al., 2021). If evidence is less for any problem, as a result, ethical rules must be followed for making any decision. The rules revolve around, being cautious, and professional, considering the choices of the patients, thinking about circumstances, and thinking medically. These factors will not let the doctors make any rash decisions. As an alternative, data with less evidence can be presented as a solution but it should be followed blindly (Audrey et al., 2020). 

The professional medical ethics model of decision-making aims to increase the quality of decisions when there is little or no evidence by reducing the unacceptable variation that might arise from patients’ and doctors’ inattentive decision-making.  The doctor should consider all the factors before deciding anything. The pros and cons should be weighed properly. 

Ethical Principles Solutions

Safeguarding privacy is a necessity for the sake of patient  (Rainer et al., 2018). Vaccination has sparked many ethical issues from all stakeholders, including politicians. People are becoming more concerned about immunization methods that don’t adhere to the proper clinical protocols. Due to the lack of access to various research on vaccination use, vaccine communication is essential. The majority of the world’s population is well-versed about vaccination’s effects. Vaccination raises a slew of ethical quandaries, particularly in countries that require children to be immunized before attending school.

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NURS FPX 4000 Assessment 3 Attempt 2 Applying Ethical Principles

Ethical approaches come together at the junction of outcome-based, virtue-based, and duty-based decision-making frameworks. Medical professionals always make decisions regarding how to handle parents who refuse their children’s vaccinations. Many parents who are wary about vaccinations have their own beliefs about the process they adhere to. The vast majority of parents regularly peruse vaccine-related blogs. Because of this, they shift their perspective on vaccinations and build beliefs based on considerable research on various platforms. Following the ethics concept, health care practitioners should do all they can to help their patients. The child’s mother or father must approve an immunization process before it can be carried out.

On the other hand, parents should be aware of the dangers of not vaccinating their children. Children with compromised immune systems should be informed of the possible side effects of this medical procedure. As a result, medical professionals may decide against recommending vaccinations for youngsters. Providing parents and caregivers with a wide range of information about vaccines will help them make better decisions. Parents are aware of the dangers they could inflict on their children if they chose not to vaccinate them (Audrey et al., 2020).

The principle of autonomy, which allows families to make their own vaccination decisions, is also one of the ethical principles. When parents disagree with a patient’s decision, medical professionals must still accept that decision. Dr. Kerr should respect the Smiths’ decision not to vaccinate Ana in this matter. Another ethical principle that permits the treatment of all patients without regard for bias is Justice. As a result, health care practitioners must treat all patients fairly, regardless of their socioeconomic status. The public’s faith in a provider’s health services will grow if Justice is served to everyone. As a result, people may quickly conclude the doctor’s recommendation.

Conclusion

It is essential to consider the choices of the patient before deciding anything. There is no downside to vaccination, regardless of the side effects. Seminars on the benefits of vaccines should be held to educate the public about their role in boosting youngsters’ immune systems. To avoid confusion and distrust, parents’ liberty in determining whether or not to vaccinate their children should be prioritized. Especially in light of the current debates around vaccination, organizations might use the idea of herd immunity to improve health safety.

References

Audrey, S., Farr, M., Roderick, M., Evans, K., & Fisher, H. (2020). How acceptable is adolescent self-consent for the HPV vaccination: findings from a qualitative study in south-west England. Vaccine38(47), 7472-7478. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.09.074

Char, D. S., Shah, N. H., & Magnus, D. (2018). Implementing machine learning in health care—addressing ethical challenges. The New England Journal of Medicine378(11), 981. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp1714229

NURS FPX 4000 Assessment 3 Attempt 2 Applying Ethical Principles

Dawson, L., Benbow, N., Fletcher, F. E., Kassaye, S., Killelea, A., Latham, S. R., & Wertheim, J. O. (2020). Addressing ethical challenges in US-based HIV phylogenetic research. The Journal of Infectious Diseases222(12), 1997-2006. https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa107

Nakatudde, I., Rujumba, J., Namiiro, F., Sam, A., Mugalu, J., & Musoke, P. (2019). Vaccination timeliness and associated factors among preterm infants at a tertiary hospital in Uganda. PloS one14(9), e0221902. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221902 

Rainer, J., Schneider, J. K., & Lorenz, R. A. (2018). Ethical dilemmas in nursing: An integrative review. Journal of Clinical Nursing27(19-20), 3446-3461. https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.14542

Sim, J., & Waterfield, J. (2019). Focus group methodology: some ethical challenges. Quality & Quantity53(6), 3003-3022. 

 Varkey, B. (2021). Principles of clinical ethics and their application to practice. Medical Principles and Practice30(1), 17-28. https://doi.org/10.1159/000509119 

Zhang, H., Zhang, H., Zhang, Z., & Wang, Y. (2021). Patient privacy and autonomy: a comparative analysis of cases of ethical dilemmas in China and the United States. BMC Medical Ethics22(1), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12910-021-00579-6