NURS FPX 4030 Assessment 2 Determining the Credibility of Evidence and Resources

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Determining the Credibility of Evidence and Resources

NURS FPX 4030 Assessment 2 Determining the Credibility of Evidence and Resources

Cancer is a complex disease with diversified causes. Among the non-communicable

diseases (NCDs), cancer is currently the leading cause of death around the globe. 

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Cancer begins when cells in a part of the body show abnormal growth. There are various kinds of cancer, and they all begin when cells start to grow out of control. In the United States alone, there are 1.6 million new instances of cancer each year and nearly 600,000 cancer deaths. Large-scale research efforts have been made to study the underlying causes of cancer as a result of the public health burden associated with these figures. The growing understanding of these mechanisms, which we review here, highlights the necessity of stepping up efforts to prevent primary cancer through the reduction of modifiable risk factors. Such initiatives would complement the current focus on developing therapeutic strategies to treat advanced tumors and are probably going to have a much greater impact on lowering morbidity and death (Golems et al., 2018). Nurses and other healthcare professionals play a crucial role in promoting the efficient procedures required to treat and manage cancer and related problems because this disease is highly common throughout the world.

Evidence-Based Practice for Cancer Management and Treatment 

Evidence-based When caring for cancer patients, nurses perform better when using evidence-based practices. The evidence-based treatments can emphasize the intricate relationships among many resources, the expertise of the senior staff in the healthcare facility, and the institutional guidelines as cancer requires an effective management, treatment, and care plan. Different websites, journals, and data repository sites like NCBI and PubMed are available to us.

Both NCBI and PubMed contain many peer-reviewed articles. It includes essays on a variety of topics. These articles are accurate and true. These can be used to gather reliable information and knowledge for incorporation into an intervention that is backed by research. Excellent examples of reliable sources for journal articles are websites like Google Scholar, Microsoft Academic, Oxford Academic, Cornell University Library, and SAGE Publishing. According to American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) there were certain guideline questions like, what methods of using integrative therapies that are supported by research are used to manage symptoms and side effects during and after breast cancer treatment? The target population includes patients undertaking treatment of breast cancer and those that are survivors of breast cancer. Then there was a target audience which includes oncologists, integrative medicine practitioners, supportive care experts, nurses, pharmacists, general practitioners, and breast cancer patients (layman et al., 2018). These clinical recommendations, which are based on a literature evaluation, will aid medical professionals in understanding the illness and how to treat.

Criteria Considered for Credibility of Resources 

The criteria for determining the credibility of the source includes CRAAP which stands for currency, relevance, authority accuracy and purpose. 

  • Currency: The information’s timeline
  • Relevance: The significance of the data for your needs.
  • Authority: The information’s original source.
  • Accuracy: The veracity and accuracy of the data.
  • Purpose: The objective of the data.

To determine whether your author is a reputable authority on the issue, you may need to review biographical sources like Biography Index or Contemporary Authors. 

NURS FPX 4030 Assessment 2 Determining the Credibility of Evidence and Resources

While up-to-date information is crucial, different fields define currency differently.

To gain access to information and modern developments concerning the care and management of individuals with cancer, websites with the .org, .edu, are regarded as trustworthy and credible sources. Encyclopedia Britannica, US Census Bureau, The World Factbook, UK Statistics, and are some of the credible sources for research purposes. Top journals for cancer research that are credible and trustworthy include the lancet oncology, cancer cell, journal of clinical oncology, Cancer discovery, cancer research etc.

  Despite being a vast repository of information, Wikipedia should never be used when creating a research paper because anyone can alter the content. These websites frequently run the risk of being inaccurate and are not among the most reliable sources for research. For online materials, note who sponsored the site (university, company, organization).

 Check to see if the source has a bibliography; if it does, the author may have incorporated previously published findings. Think about the journalist’s credibility in terms of journalism ethics. What is the standing of the news outlet that published the article? Journalists are not necessarily subject matter experts while writing news pieces. They can still offer accurate information, though. Always look into a journalist’s background and credentials, as well as the news organization that is disseminating the material. Identify the most recent update date for websites that contain resources. Check the links to ensure that they are functional as well. If links are broken, the website may not have been updated recently.

For scholarly articles take note of the information’s original source. Is it printed in a journal for academics? Is there a bibliography included? Is the book written by a recognized academic publisher or a university press? Make sure the content is at a level that is suitable for your research. 

Credibility and Relevance of Evidence-Based Resources 

Numerous peer-reviewed publications are included in PubMed and NCBI. It contains papers from several different subjects. These are true and factual articles. These can be used to acquire trustworthy data and knowledge for inclusion in an intervention that is supported by evidence. Websites like Google Scholar, Microsoft Academic, Oxford Academic, Cornell University Library, and SAGE Publishing are excellent examples of trustworthy sources for journal articles. Similarly, A task force organized by the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASRO) was formed to conduct a systematic literature review on important issues. 

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NURS FPX 4030 Assessment 2 Determining the Credibility of Evidence and Resources

Different journals that are credible and relevant for cancer research include top journals that are ranked on the basis of their impact factor The Lancet Oncology, Cancer Cell, Journal of Clinical Oncology, Cancer Discovery, Cancer Research etc. The Lancet Oncology addresses issues pertaining to worldwide oncology as well as themes that promote clinical practice, question the status quo, push for changes in health policy, and advocate for change.

A clinical practice guideline on hypo fractionated EBRT for localized prostate cancer was being developed by the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), and American Urological Association (AUA) (Morgan et al., 2018).

Evidence-Based Practice Model 

The effects of evidence-based practice (EBP) have reverberated throughout the fields of research, education, and nursing. The necessity for redesigning care that is effective, safe, and efficient is underlined by the push for evidence-based quality improvement and healthcare transformation. EBP is a lifelong problem-solving approach to clinical decision-making that combines one’s clinical expertise with the best available evidence, as well as a systematic search for critical evaluation of the most pertinent evidence to address a clinical question, to keep improving outcomes for individuals, groups, communities, and systems. There are many models of EBP, one such model is ACE Star Model.

Academic Center for Evidence-Based Practice (ACE Star Model)

In order to achieve the goal of quality improvement, the Academic Centre for Evidence-Based Practice created the ACE Star Model as an interdisciplinary technique for knowledge transfer into nursing and healthcare practise. This model addresses the EBP process’ translation and implementation elements. The five steps of the model are:

(1) Acquiring new knowledge

(2) Summarizing the data after a thorough evaluation process;

(3) Using the data to inform clinical practise

(4) Putting the suggested adjustment into action

(5) Analyzing the impact of the practice modification for its role in raising healthcare quality. 

NURS FPX 4030 Assessment 2 Determining the Credibility of Evidence and Resources

Individual practitioners and organizations can both use the ACE Star Model to direct practice improvement in a variety of circumstances. This model can help in better understanding of the diseases like cancer. Due to its resemblance to the nursing process, the model has been used as a guide to integrate EBP into nursing curricula and is also easily comprehended by staff nurses. The focus on knowledge transformation helps to validate how nursing interventions contribute to quality improvement. The model does not take into account the fact that the translation stage also involves physician expertise and has the ability to discuss patient expertise. Use of this Model as an organizing framework for teaching EBP topics to undergraduates, as well as the establishment of EBP skills for clinical nurse specialists. In the clinical setting, practitioners have utilized the model to direct the creation of a clinical guidelines for ventilator-associated pneumonia and to apply knowledge of social support and healthy lifestyle behaviors to working with teenagers in community and educational settings. The corporate culture and setting that affect practice change adoption are examples of less well-defined strategies for the effective implementation of practice changes (Indra, 2018).


The implementation of evidence-based interventions that can aid in overcoming the problem of cancer prevalence is mostly the responsibility of nurses. However, employing reliable and authentic sources can help make evidence-based practice effective and raise the standard of hospital treatment. You can consult a variety of resources for this purpose, including PubMed, NCBI, and websites like the American Society of Clinical Oncology, to gain up-to-date and sophisticated medical knowledge about cancer. To successfully apply evidence-based practice and overcome the medical problem, the Iowa model can be used.


Golems, E. A., Scheet, P., Beck, T. N., Scolnick, E. M., Hunter, D. J., Hawk, E., & Hopkins, N. (2018). Molecular mechanisms of the preventable causes of cancer in the United States. Genes & development, 32(13-14), 868–902.

Indra, V. (2018). A review on models of evidence-based practice. Asian Journal of Nursing Education and Research, 8(4), 549-552.

Jacob Esauls, Derek W Craig, Timothy J Walker, Maya Foster, Patricia Dolan Mullen, Maria E Fernandez, applying evidence-based intervention (EBI) mapping to identify the components and logic of colorectal cancer screening interventions, Translational Behavioral Medicine, Volume 12, Issue 2, February 2022, Pages 304–323,

Lyman, G. H., Greenlee, H., Bohlke, K., Bao, T., DeMichele, A. M., Deng, G. E., … & Cohen, L. (2018). Integrative therapies during and after breast cancer treatment: ASCO endorsement of the SIO clinical practice guideline. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 36(25), 2647-2655.

Morgan, S. C., Hoffman, K., Loblaw, D. A., applying, M. K., Patton, C., Barocas, D., … & Sandler, H. (2018). Hypo fractionated radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer: An ASTRO, ASCO, and AUA evidence-based guideline. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 36(34), 3411. doi: 10.1200/JCO.18.01097Vide tic, G. M., Dodington, J., Giuliani, M., Heinzerling, J., Karas, T. Z., Kelsey, C. R., … & Daly, M. E. (2017). Stereotactic body radiation therapy for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer: Executive Summary of an ASTRO Evidence-Based Guideline. Practical Radiation Oncology, 7(5), 295-301.