NURS FPX 4050 Assessment 1 Attempt 3 Preliminary Care Coordination Plan

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Preliminary Care Coordination Plan

NURS FPX 4050 Assessment 1 Attempt 3 Preliminary Care Coordination Plan

Care coordination is an imperative approach to improving patient health and care management. Millions of people are suffering from chronic health conditions worldwide. Care coordination plays a substantial role in meeting these patients’ complex needs and delivering integrated care (Karam et al., 2021). A preliminary coordination plan is a key to providing patients with integrated health services. So, it is the responsibility of health care providers to develop a primary coordination plan and deliver effective health care (Kuo et al., 2018).

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Analysis of Psychological Trauma

Psychological trauma is an emotional response to any unexpected or distressing event, such as an accident, rape, childhood suffering, or any other calamity. Trauma leaves the individual with a host of life-long challenges and puts intense effects on his senses. The victim can show a wide range of reactions after going through disturbing events. Post-traumatic responses can be both emotional and physical, for instance, flashbacks, emotional apathy, stress, depression, strained relationships, nausea, trembling, panic attacks, headache, etc. (Hordvik, 2019).

An event can be highly disturbing for a person, and it is likely to be normal for some other individual. It comes in different ways, but the victim can have some common responses (Giller, 1999). Studies show a deep relation between traumatic events and both psychological and psychiatric disorders (Turner & Lloyd, 1995). Studies of adults’ mental health show that children also suffer from traumas that, if not treated, can lead to adult age disorders. Several kinds of the disorder can be seen in traumatized children, such as conduct disorder, phobic disorder, borderline personality, adjustment disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity, and many other conditions (Terr, 1995). Research shows that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adolescents includes behavioral problems, emotional and interpersonal issues, academic failure, and other health risks (GIACONIA et al., 1995).

Understanding trauma and its common response is crucial to delivering trauma-informed care. Millions of people suffer from traumas worldwide due to various reasons. Many of them recover from it without any interventions, but some get trapped in posttraumatic experiences and challenges. People who are more likely to face long-term psychological problems are often individuals who have a previous stressful life, a psychiatric history, have difficult roles, feel vulnerable to the coping situation, are afraid of being killed, or whose life becomes miserable after a disaster (Brooks et al., 2018).

Here are some of the best evidence-based practices that tend to improve patients’ recovery and prevent re-traumatization. The trauma-informed approach should contain providers’ behavior towards a patient. They should understand and acknowledge the patient’s condition. This way, the patient thinks validation of their emotions. Besides, it creates a trustworthy relationship between providers and patients. The trauma-informed care approach also develops coping mechanisms in trauma patients. The health staff should remain open-minded. When providers consider all perspectives and understand the context of trauma, it helps them to address community, cultural, and historical traumas (Sweeney et al., 2018).

The whole procedure of trauma care should be conducted timely and respectful way. It must be the choice of the patient whether or not to answer a question because answering some questions and repeating the scenario can retraumatize the patient. Openness and respect are crucial for trust development between providers and service users. Another best practice is to ensure patients are physically and emotionally safe so they can share their experiences. It is possible by using gender and culture competence, informed choice, etc. Other practices that practitioners can use are the involvement of patients in decision-making and care planning, principles of collaboration, informed choice, and empowerment (Sweeney et al., 2018). 

Mental health awareness among the masses is imperative to save them from posttraumatic experiences. Health organizations and settings can play a key role in this regard. They should educate people about mental health trauma and its after effects. Caregivers and family members should work together for the patient’s betterment, leading to a preliminary care coordination plan. Healthcare providers should make effective care coordination plans to give the best care and easy access to provided care. 

Measurable Goals to Address Trauma

The first goal to achieve revolves around health settings and healthcare providers. All of them should work in harmony to address traumas and their aftereffects – through interdisciplinary collaboration. That means care coordination and planning with mental health specialists are highly needed. 

NURS FPX 4050 Assessment 1 Attempt 3 Preliminary Care Coordination Plan

The second goal is evidence-based research. Healthcare staff will require a lot of knowledge about the topic to manage trauma-exposed patients. This knowledge not only will help them in evidence-based practice but introduces and utilize new therapies for patients’ mental health improvement. The research should include study about traumas, trauma effects, symptoms of PTSD, commonness in posttraumatic reactions, reasons behind traumas, techniques, therapies to address the problem, self-care strategies, etc. (Cohen et al., 2008).

The third goal is to educate people about trauma and its suffering. They should be aware of how and when to access mental health help. Healthcare organizations and providers should work on this matter. They should communicate with them about treatments and wellness activities, like exercise, outings, etc. that can improve their posttraumatic condition. They should manage to give people easy and timely access to healthcare systems and support as well by creating helplines or using telehealth technology (SAMHSA, 2014). Moreover, they should be educated that how to assist their loved ones to cope with mental stress and other posttraumatic conditions. Some people that experience traumatic stress are working individuals. They may suffer from traumas due to any disaster or other factors previously described. Managers of organizations should be educated to identify such cases (post-disaster trauma) and support the most vulnerable staff members for better results. They should promote coping mechanisms and exercise rather than denial. Members suffering from post-disaster psychological issues must be helped by the organization to get timely psychological help. Organizations can schedule workshops and short learning sessions for developing coping mechanisms in workers (Brooks et al., 2018).

Another and most important goal is to include elements in the coordination plan that are in line with the patient’s psychological needs and preferences. Healthcare providers should honor patients’ opinions in deciding on therapies. This is how a patient feels empowered and it helps him/her in decision-making (Sweeney et al., 2018). Implementation of these goals leads to another milestone to achieve which is financial support. Placing new adjustments to fulfill traumatic patients is sometimes costly. For that purpose, health settings and organizations should get financial funding from health agencies.

Significant Resources for Safe Continuum of Care

There are several trauma-informed treatment modalities for adolescents. Research on these therapies resulted in positive outcomes in the mitigation of posttraumatic effects (Zettler, 2020). There are various resources for trauma. Support groups are an important type of community resource. Representatives of a support group exchange various forms of aid with one another. Individuals in a support group can share their perspectives, coping mechanisms, and first-hand knowledge of the trauma or therapy. Participating in such a service allows everyone to communicate with people who share their values and appreciate one another. It can enhance the sufferer’s coping skills and lessen loneliness by regulating the experience of recovery and boosting the survivor’s self-efficacy via information and sharing of resources. (Brooks et al., 2020). The following are some advantages of attending a support group: fewer emotions of isolation, hostility, or denial. Stress, melancholy, and fatigue are reduced. Some additional community resources that can be utilized are.

  • CAARE Center offers free smart chats with people and counselors to help them with coping and management strategies (Woods-Jaeger et al., 2020). The address of the CAARE center’s main office is 214 Broadway St, Durham, NC 27701, and their contact number is +1-919-683-5300.  
  • CPTSD Foundation (https://cptsdfoundation.org/)  also aids people who experience psychological trauma by providing cost-effective therapies that lead toward a healing journey (Matheson, & Weightman, 2021). 
  • SAMHSA treatment locator provides recommendations for low-cost therapists in the area (Armstrong, 2022). The main head office of SAMHSA is in Rockville (5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20857) and their contact number is 1-877-726-4727.
  • Trauma Survivors Network provides community support groups. It aids in reducing the emotional stress experienced by trauma survivors. With the help of groups, individuals and families can talk about their issues in a setting that is encouraging recovery. Trauma Survivors Network is a huge network comprising 150 sites. People can connect and locate the nearest site using their website (https://www.traumasurvivorsnetwork.org/signup) (American Trauma Society, 2022).

A list of  some other community resources for a safe continuum of care is given, as

  • Trauma-informed care
  • Telemedicine
  • Community mental health service system

The basic trauma-informed care structure was developed and published by a national working group in 2015. The model applies to a wide range of trauma patients whose experiences and outcomes are affected by trauma. There are five main components of the approach, as

NURS FPX 4050 Assessment 1 Attempt 3 Preliminary Care Coordination Plan

  1. Trauma-informed principles and team collaboration
  2. Empowering environment
  3. Education on trauma and its consequences
  4. Inquiry of response to trauma
  5. Referral to support groups and group therapy (Machinery et al., 2019).

Medication and therapies are part of the resources to assist patients in health improvement. These techniques help patients suffering from trauma effects. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) and Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) is the most effective treatments for remitting posttraumatic symptoms and improving patient health in adults (Marneuli et al., 2020). Other CBTs involve SITCAP-ART, CBITS, TGCTA, TF-CBT, TARGET, etc. (Zettler, 2020). Another resource is the use of telemedicine. Research shows that the approach is feasible and acceptable. Implementation of telemedicine requires proper support, evaluation, and planning. Both the providers and patients need many learning sessions to get familiar and used to the procedure (Popovich et al., 2020). 

Other than medical assistance, many well-being activities can improve the posttraumatic condition of patients. Psychologists and psychiatrists, along with family members can help a victim in adopting healthy activities. Another resource is online or offline support groups related to mental health awareness and recovery. Members of these groups help each other in moving on and developing self-coping mechanisms. Joining these groups increases patients’ exposure and creates new opportunities for them to battle with posttraumatic experiences.

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References

American Trauma Society. (2022). Trauma Survivors Network | Peer Support Groups. Traumasurvivorsnetwork.org. https://www.traumasurvivorsnetwork.org/pages/peer-support-groups 

Armstrong, E. M. (2022). Promise and pitfalls: trauma informed care, trauma services, and efforts to address both substance use disorders and intimate partner violence. Journal of Family Violence. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-022-00378-6

Brooks, S. K., Rubin, G. J., & Greenberg, N. (2018). Traumatic stress within disaster-exposed occupations: overview of the literature and suggestions for the management of traumatic stress in the workplace. British Medical Bulletin, 129(1), 25–34. https://doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldy040 

Brooks, S. K., Webster, R. K., Smith, L. E., Woodland, L., Wessely, S., Greenberg, N., & Rubin, G. J. (2020). The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. The Lancet, 395(10227), 912–920. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(20)30460-8 

Cohen, J. A., Kelleher, K. J., & Mannarino, A. P. (2008). Identifying, Treating, and Referring Traumatized Children. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 162(5), 447. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.162.5.447 

GIACONIA, R. M., REINHERZ, H. Z., SILVERMAN, A. B., PAKIZ, B., FROST, A. K., & COHEN, E. (1995). Traumas and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in a Community Population of Older Adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 34(10), 1369–1380. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199510000-00023

Giller, E. (1999). What Is Psychological Trauma? – Sober Recovery: Alcoholism Drug Addiction Help and Information. Www.soberrecovery.com. https://www.soberrecovery.com/forums/friends-family-alcoholics/214177-what-psychological-trauma.html 

NURS FPX 4050 Assessment 1 Attempt 3 Preliminary Care Coordination Plan

Hordvik, E. (2019). What is Psychological Trauma? (1st ed., pp. 1–8). Routledge. https://www.taylorfrancis.com/chapters/edit/10.4324/9780429461637-3/psychological-trauma-elin-hordvik 

Karam, M., Chouinard, M.-C., Poitras, M.-E., Couturier, Y., Vedel, I., Grgurevic, N., & Hudon, C. (2021). Nursing Care Coordination for Patients with Complex Needs in Primary Healthcare: A Scoping Review. International Journal of Integrated Care, 21(1). https://doi.org/10.5334/ijic.5518

Kuo, D. Z., McAllister, J. W., Rossignol, L., Turchi, R. M., & Stille, C. J. (2018). Care Coordination for Children with Medical Complexity: Whose Care Is It, anyway? Pediatrics, 141(Supplement 3), S224–S232. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2017-1284g 

Machinery, E. L., Davis, K. B., Kimberg, L. S., Khanna, N., Cuca, Y. P., Dawson-Rose, C., Shumway, M., Campbell, J., Lewis-O’Connor, A., Blake, M., Blanch, A., & McCaw, B. (2019). From Treatment to Healing: Inquiry and Response to Recent and Past Trauma in Adult Health Care. Women’s Health Issues, 29(2), 97–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.whi.2018.11.003

Marneuli, I., Megnin-Vigurs, O., Daly, C., Dias, S., Welton, N. J., Stockton, S., Bhutani, G., Grey, N., Leach, J., Greenberg, N., Katona, C., El-Leith, S., & Pilling, S. (2020). Psychological treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder in adults: a network meta-analysis. Psychological Medicine, 50(4), 542–555. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0033291720000070 

Matheson, C., & Weightman, E. (2021). A participatory study of patient views on psychotherapy for complex post-traumatic stress disorder, CPTSD. Journal of Mental Health, 30(6), 690-697. https://doi.org/10.1080/09638237.2020.1803229 

Popovich, S. L., Monroe-DeVita, M., Buck, B. E., Brenner, C., Moser, L., Jar Skog, L. F., Harker, S., & Chastain, L. A. (2020). Community Mental Health Care Delivery During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Practical Strategies for Improving Care for People with Serious Mental Illness. Community Mental Health Journal, 57. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10597-020-00662-z

SAMHSA. (2014). Understanding the Impact of Trauma. Nih.gov; Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (US). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK207191/ 

NURS FPX 4050 Assessment 1 Attempt 3 Preliminary Care Coordination Plan

Sweeney, A., Filson, B., Kennedy, A., Collinson, L., & Gillard, S. (2018). A paradigm shift:    relationships in trauma-informed mental health services. Psych Advances, 24(5), 319–333.  https://doi.org/10.1192/bja.2018.29

Terr, L. C. (1995). Childhood Traumas. Psych traumatology, 10.1007/978-1-4899-1034-9_18, 301–320. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-1034-9_18

Turner, R. J., & Lloyd, D. A. (1995). Lifetime Traumas and Mental Health: The Significance of Cumulative Adversity. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 36(4), 360. https://doi.org/10.2307/2137325 

Woods-Jaeger, B., Cho, B., & Briggs, E. C. (2020). Training psychologists to address social determinants of mental health. Training and Education in Professional Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1037/tep0000307 Zettler, H. R. (2020). Much to Do About Trauma: A Systematic Review of Existing Trauma-Informed Treatments on Youth Violence and Recidivism. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 154120402093964. https://doi.org/10.1177/1541204020939645