PSYC FPX 4100 Assessment 2 Applied Psychology in the Professions

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Applied Psychology in Professions

Applied Psychology is the application of knowledge and theories to practical issues or scenarios, such as living, education, industry, or environmental issues (APA Dictionary of Psychology, n.d.). Counseling psychology is professional psychology that offers help for people cope with their distress, difficulties, and problems to improve their functions in life. It primarily relies on education, training, guidance, and discussion to help individuals in need during difficult and challenging times of distress (Furman & Lepper, 2018). 

Psychologists have the knowledge and comprehension to apply culturally informed and evidence-based interventions, training, and assessments. The attention is placed on the individuals’ strengths, backgrounds, and development. Role of workplace and career in one’s life and how an individual’s personality is shaped as a result of these experiences.  This assessment describes the historical development of counseling psychology, analyzes the societal or cultural needs for its development, and analyzes how the history of counseling psychology informs professional behaviors. 

Description of the Historical Development of Counseling Psychology 

In 1940 counseling psychology(CP) evolved as an applied specialty in American Psychological Association (APA). In 1946 CP gained recognition as a specialty which was reaffirmed in 1998. The major milestones in the history of CP are the establishment of the discipline of psychology, the start of essential research journals, and important conferences held over the years (Furman & Lepper, 2018).

PSYC FPX 4100 Assessment 2 Applied Psychology in the Professions

The formation of organizations: The Society of Counseling Psychology (SCP) and Council of Counseling Psychology Training Programs(CCPTP) is pivotal to the development of CP. Before 2004 SCP was referred to as Division 17.  John Whiteley, a key figure in the CP history, identifies its seeds back to guidance, mental hygiene, and intervention such as Carl Reger’s person-centered therapy. 

APA in 1946 recognized Division 17, and topics related to counseling psychology began to be reviewed in Psychology Annual Review. In the 1950s, higher education and returning of World War II veterans further prompted CP’s development. 

In 1951 first major conference was held on counseling psychology, which resulted in the standardization of doctoral training in CP, and the Division 17 Committee on Definition was formed. Journal of CP surfaced in 1954 and reviewed continuing in Annual Reviews of Psychology helped CP to develop further (IResearchNet, n.d.).

Analysis of Societal or Cultural Needs to Develop Counseling Psychology

Counseling Psychology is the most relevant psychological intervention for induvial and society at large to cope with the challenges of distress and difficulties to cope with it. It provides the patients with structured guidance to overcome their living or other societal challenges but also provides a platform to be used by researchers to carry out evidence-based research (Schmitt, 2017).

PSYC FPX 4100 Assessment 2 Applied Psychology in the Professions

Counseling Psychology shall continue to evolve in integrating social justice action into it. We have provided recommendations for counseling psychologists to move forward in our social justice activists. The Society of Counseling Psychologists has continued to examine how this specialty of Psychology has been shaped since its inception in 1940 (Lester et al., 2018). For example, the training standards in the 1950s addressed the need for doctoral students early training standards in the 1950s addressed the need for doctoral students to get themselves familiarized with social structure with cultural conditions,  be familiar with the broad problems of social networks and organization, cultural conditions, and the diversified group patterns of our culture (Lester et al., 2018). In the 1960s, counseling psychologists understood the importance of particular requirements of deprived groups, noted the importance of understanding the unique needs of underprivileged groups, and endorsed social change. Further development of Counseling Psychology in the 1970s and 1980s is fine-tuned for professional outlook, focusing on people with diverse backgrounds and societal-cultural factors (DeBlaere et al., 2019).  

Cultural and cross-cultural psychology development can be attributed to the growing recognition of the importance of culture and cultural differences in shaping human behavior, cognition, and development. Society’s need for a better understanding of cultural diversity and its impact on individuals and communities have driven the emergence of this area of psychology (Schmitt, 2017).

Globalization is a pertinent example of a societal need supporting cultural psychology development. As societies and economies become increasingly interconnected, people from different cultures and backgrounds interact more frequently, making cross-cultural understanding and competence critical for successful communication and collaboration. Cultural psychology helps individuals understand and appreciate cultural differences, which can lead to improved relationships and a more harmonious global community.

PSYC FPX 4100 Assessment 2 Applied Psychology in the Professions

Another example of a societal need that led to the development of cultural psychology is the recognition of cultural bias in psychological research and practice. Historically, much of psychological research and theory has been based on Western cultures, which may not accurately represent the experiences and behaviors of individuals from different cultural backgrounds. Cultural psychology seeks to address this issue by providing a framework for understanding how culture shapes human behavior and cognition and by promoting the inclusion of diverse perspectives in psychological research (Lester et al., 2018).

Overall, the development of cultural and cross-cultural psychology can be seen as a response to the increasing diversity of modern societies and the need for a deeper understanding of cultural differences. By studying how culture influences behavior and cognition, cultural psychology can contribute to developing more effective interventions and policies that respect and honor diverse cultural traditions and values.

Analysis of How History of Counseling Psychology Informs Professional Behaviors

A rich history of Counseling Psychology has led this specialty to influence, impact, and shape professional behaviors and value addition in these behaviors across the board in all professions. Social justice and global issues are deeply rooted in counseling psychology. Yet, no model is available to fill the gap for social justice identity development and training requirements of international counseling psychology students (Oh et al., 2017). International students facing different cross-cultural experiences and injustices may uniquely inform their social identity development (Hui-Spears & Park-Saltzman, 2022). The inclusion of social justice, psychological services, access to the underprivileged, and equity are the bases of counseling psychology. Telepsychology can contribute to all three dimensions by fulfilling the requirements of counseling psychology. However, counseling psychologists lack the skill and knowledge to provide quality patient advice via telepsychology (Cooper et al., 2019).  

Additionally, the emphasis on human development in counseling psychology, which emerged in the 1980s and 1990s, has informed professional behavior by encouraging counselors to take a holistic approach to their client’s well-being. This includes considering clients’ personal, social, and cultural backgrounds to provide effective and culturally sensitive counseling.

Overall, the history of counseling psychology has informed professional behaviors by establishing ethical guidelines, promoting certification and strict standards, and encouraging a holistic approach to clients’ well-being. These principles continue to guide the professional conduct of counselors today (Oh et al., 2017).


Counseling Psychology is the specialty of Psychology that help patients better manage their mental health through strategies such as education, guidance, training, and assessments. American Psychological Association (APA) recognized Division 17, which formally acknowledges the discipline of counseling psychology. CP is the most relevant psychological intervention that enables individuals to cope with their distress and depression. The effect of societal and cultural norms is evident in the development of counseling psychology. Social justice, access to the underprivileged, and equity are the main pillars of counseling psychology: telepsychology can equip psychologists with the proper skill set, and specialized training can equip psychologists’ to better fulfill their professional counseling psychology requirements. 


APA Counselling Psychology. (2020). 

APA Dictionary of Psychology. (n.d.). 

Cooper, S. E., Campbell, L. F., & Smucker Barnwell, S. (2019). Telepsychology: A primer for counseling psychologists. The Counseling Psychologist, 47(8), 1074–1114. 

DeBlaere, C., Singh, A. A., Wilcox, M. M., Cokley, K. O., Delgado-Romero, E. A., Scalise, D. A., & Shawahin, L. (2019). Social justice in counseling psychology: Then, now, and looking forward. The Counseling Psychologist, 47(6), 938–962. 

Furman, T. M., & Lepper, T. L. (2018). Applied behavior analysis: Definitional difficulties. The Psychological Record, 68(1), 103–106. 

History of Counseling Psychology – IResearchNet. (n.d.). Psychology. 

Hui-Spears, K., & Park-Saltzman, J. (2022). Social justice identity development for international counseling psychology students. The Counseling Psychologist, 001100002210994.