PSYC FPX 4310 Assessment 2 Theories and Ethics

You are currently viewing PSYC FPX 4310 Assessment 2 Theories and Ethics

Theories and Ethics

I want to investigate the neurobiological aspects of MDMA (ecstasy) abuse for my assigned assessment. Through an examination of companion evaluated articles from various sources, I plan to acquire assorted points of view on the organic brain research of this subject.

Given the growing use of MDMA and its potential side effects, the misuse of it is a significant area of research. Also known as 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine, MDMA is a psychoactive drug that is frequently used for recreational purposes to enhance social interactions and induce euphoria. Despite this, its complex pharmacology has prompted additional research into its therapeutic potential for anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) management.

Theories Used in Articles

The theory presented in the article “MDMA and treatment for PTSD:” PTSD: According to the idea of “novel pathophysiology to innovative therapeutics,” MDMA may be an effective additional treatment option for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) when used in conjunction with specialized psychotherapy and under specific supervision. The creator’s perspective depends on past examination and clinical preliminaries in neuroscience and medication, as well as their own perceptions and contribution in overseeing the substance in a clinical climate.

PSYC FPX 4310 Assessment 2 Theories and Ethics

According to the “addiction-as-a-disease” model, also known as the RDS theory, addiction is a relapsing, chronic brain disease characterized by changes in the reward and motivational systems of the brain (Blum et al., 2021). This hypothesis can be applied to the neurobiology of MDMA misuse.

Cognitive effects may result from the serotonin depletion hypothesis, which states that MDMA use decreases serotonin levels in the brain. Neurotransmitter serotonin regulates mood as well as cognitive functions like attention and memory. As a result, the drug’s serotonin depletion may be related to the cognitive impairments seen in MDMA users, such as problems with attention and working memory.

How Theories are applied to a Topic and Research Findings

Sessa (2017) asserts that the administration of MDMA in a clinical setting may not pose the same risks as its recreational use, and that there are few concerns regarding its neurotoxic effects in clinical settings. However, the article acknowledges that the study’s results may be limited by the small sample size and that additional research is required to confirm the findings.

The hypothesis is that MDMA can be an effective supplementary treatment for PTSD when used in conjunction with specialized psychotherapy in a controlled and monitored setting. With regards to the neurobiology of euphoria (MDMA) misuse, this hypothesis could be applied to explore the expected unfriendly impacts of sporting MDMA use on the cerebrum and how these impacts contrast with the possible remedial advantages of involving MDMA in a clinical setting for the treatment of PTSD.

The article discusses a number of studies that looked into the use of MDMA to treat PTSD. In the first phase, neurophysiological studies were conducted, and in the second phase, clinical studies were conducted. According to these studies, MDMA may help alleviate PTSD symptoms. Notwithstanding, the article recognizes that the restricted example sizes and the need for additional examination to approve their decisions could limit the effect of the outcomes. In addition, the article mentions that the use of MDMA in a clinical setting has not been associated with many concerns about neurotoxicity, suggesting that the drug may be relatively safe for treating PTSD when used under controlled and supervised conditions. In any case, it is vital for note that the sporting utilization of MDMA might convey various dangers and might not have similar remedial advantages as its utilization in a clinical setting.

PSYC FPX 4310 Assessment 2 Theories and Ethics

The hypothesis utilized in the article “MDMA communications with drugs and medications of misuse” is the possibility that MDMA can associate with different medications (the two drugs and medications of misuse) and that these cooperations can expand the endanger of intense and possibly dangerous harmfulness (Papaseit et al., 2020). Based on previous research, including experimental data and documented clinical cases of MDMA-drug interactions (MDMA-DIs), the author of this paper supports the idea that MDMA may be a useful adjunctive therapy for PTSD. The article presents a writing survey and union of existing information on MDMA-DIs rather than unique essential exploration.

The essential focal point of the examination talked about in this article is on MDMA and its possible associations with different medications. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic instruments fundamental these collaborations and their potential clinical results are examined. The sex, gender, race, and genetic make-up of those who use MDMA are all mentioned in the article as additional potential factors that could influence the severity and frequency of these types of intoxications. The writers of the article give their well-qualified sentiments and clinical proposals in view of the accessible proof.

This theory could be used to investigate the potential negative effects of MDMA use on the brain when combined with other drugs in the context of the neurobiology of ecstasy (MDMA) abuse. The findings of previous studies on MDMA-drug interactions (MDMA-DIs), which include both experimental and documented clinical cases (Costa & Goembiowska, 2022) are reviewed in this article. According to these studies, MDMA can interact with a variety of drugs, which could lead to an increased risk of acute toxicity that could be fatal. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic mechanisms of these interactions, in addition to the potential clinical consequences, are the subject of the article. The article also acknowledges that the likelihood and severity of MDMA-DIs may be influenced by other factors, such as sex, gender, race, and genetics of drug users. The article’s authors offer their expert opinions and clinical recommendations based on the evidence that is available. By and large, the exploration discoveries recommend that people who use MDMA in mix with different medications might be at expanded risk for unfavorable impacts and ought to be wary while utilizing these medications together.

The article’s theoretical framework (Tao et al., Environmental conditions (non-drug factors) can affect serotonergic extrasynaptic receptor responsiveness and the severity of MDMA-induced serotonin syndrome, according to a 2017 study titled “Environment Influencing Serotonin Syndrome Induced by Ecstasy Abuse.” The article’s review and synopsis of previous research and data on the subject lend credence to this theory. The levels of extracellular serotonin in the brain, the influence of environmental factors on serotonergic extrasynaptic receptor responsiveness, and the effect of MDMA on extrasynaptic receptors in the brain are the primary variables in the study, which is classified as mild, moderate, or severe. As opposed to directing new essential exploration, the examination techniques utilized in the article comprise of a survey of existing examinations and information on the point (Tao et al., 2017). The writer guaranteed that every one of the checked on articles are pertinent and adhere to moral and security rules.

PSYC FPX 4310 Assessment 2 Theories and Ethics

Using data from previous studies, the article focuses on how non-drug factors affect serotonergic extrasynaptic receptor responsiveness and the severity of MDMA-induced serotonin syndrome.

According to the findings of these studies, both the responsiveness of extrasynaptic receptors in the brain and the severity of serotonin syndrome can be affected by environmental factors. The article looks at the seriousness of the serotonin disorder, extracellular serotonin levels in the mind, the impact of natural circumstances on serotonergic extrasynaptic receptor responsivity, and the impact of MDMA on extrasynaptic receptors in the cerebrum as its principal factors. The examination depends on a survey of past investigations and information as opposed to unique exploration, and the writer has guaranteed that the looked into articles meet moral and wellbeing rules. The findings suggest that MDMA can affect extrasynaptic receptors in the brain and that environmental factors can influence the severity of MDMA-induced serotonin syndrome.

The glutamate hypothesis, which asserts that MDMA use raises glutamate levels in the brain, may also have effects on cognitive function. Glutamate is a neurotransmitter that stimulates and is involved in cognitive functions like learning and memory. However, excitotoxicity, which can harm neurons and impair cognitive function, can result from excessive glutamate levels (Montgomery & Roberts, 2022).

Therefore, we can gain insight into the drug’s cognitive effects by comprehending the neurobiological mechanisms underlying its effects.

Ethical Principles in Research

By using MDMA as an additional treatment for PTSD and conducting the study under controlled and supervised conditions, the researchers appear to be adhering to ethical standards. Additionally, they provided specialized psychotherapy support. This suggests that the researchers are adhering to appropriate ethical guidelines for conducting research involving human subjects and taking precautions to ensure the subjects’ safety. Engaging in research with human subjects and ensuring their safety and well-being through appropriate measures, such as providing specialized psychotherapy support alongside MDMA as a supplementary treatment for PTSD and adhering to ethical guidelines, are all examples of ethical conduct. These measures might include getting the subjects’ informed consent, keeping their privacy and confidentiality, and giving them the help and resources they need.

Moral ways of behaving involved by the scientists in the given article incorporate getting assent from members for all tests and examinations and morally directing their exploration (Parrott, 2013). We can respect others’ autonomy and ensure that they are aware of and agree to participate in any tests, experiments, or other research by obtaining their consent prior to doing so.

Instead of conducting new primary research, the researcher in this article engaged in ethical behavior by reviewing previous studies and data and providing an overview of the current understanding of the subject. This indicates that the researcher has relying on the work of other researchers and has systematically analyzed and synthesized this information rather than carrying out any new experiments or collecting any new data (Tao et al., 2017). The researcher has also followed guidelines and reviewed only relevant articles to ensure that the research is carried out safely and ethically. Respecting the work of others, critically evaluating the sources of information we encounter, and being aware of the ethical implications of our actions are examples of these behaviors that can be incorporated into our day-to-day lives.

PSYC FPX 4310 Assessment 2 Theories and Ethics

In order to investigate various facets of MDMA abuse and use, the authors of these articles employ a variety of theories, research strategies, and variables. However, they are all concerned about the ethical and safety implications of this area’s research. In terms of ethical principles, researchers must ensure that they adhere to the fundamental principles of research ethics, such as confidentiality, informed consent, minimizing harm, and protecting vulnerable populations (Gordon, 2020). For instance, participants in clinical studies involving MDMA must give their informed consent and be aware of the drug’s potential side effects and risks. To safeguard the identities and data of the participants, confidentiality and privacy must be maintained. Additionally, researchers must minimize participants’ potential psychological and physical harm during the study (Gordon, 2020).

Ethical Behaviors in Daily Life

Ethical behavior is just as important in everyday life as it is in research. Fair and responsible decisions, treating others with respect, and upholding our values and principles are crucial. Being truthful, open, and considerate of others while avoiding harm or distress is part of ethical behavior. It also requires us to admit our mistakes, take responsibility for our actions, and be open about our choices. Sticking to moral standards assists us with keeping up with individual honesty and remain consistent with our convictions and values. We can improve our decision-making, strengthen our relationships, and achieve personal fulfillment by putting these principles into practice every day. We acquire more self-assurance, become more attentive, and make decisions that are in line with our goals and values.


Blum, K., Bowirrat, A., Braverman, E. R., Baron, D., Cadet, J. L., Kazmi, S., Elman, I., Thanos, P. K., Badgaiyan, R. D., Downs, W. B., Bagchi, D., Llanos-Gomez, L., & Gold, M. S. (2021). Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS): A cytoarchitectural common neurobiological trait of all addictions. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(21), 11529. 

Costa, G., & Gołembiowska, K. (2022). Neurotoxicity of MDMA: Main effects and mechanisms. Experimental Neurology, 347(1), 113894. 

Gordon, B. G. (2020). Vulnerability in research: Basic ethical concepts and general approach to review. Ochsner Journal, 20(1), 34–38. 

Montgomery, C., & Roberts, C. A. (2022). Neurological and cognitive alterations induced by MDMA in humans. Experimental Neurology, 347(1), 113888. 

Parrott, A. C. (2013). Human psychobiology of MDMA or “Ecstasy”: An overview of 25 years of empirical research. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental, 28(4), 289–307.

Sessa, B. (2017). MDMA and PTSD treatment. Neuroscience Letters, 649, 176–180.,Tao, R., Shokry, I. M., & Callanan, J. J. (2017). Environment influencing serotonin syndrome induced by ecstasy abuse. Annals of Forensic Research and Analysis, 4(1), 1039.