PSYC FPX 4600 Assessment 1 Literature Review

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Literature Review

Brain research, the investigation of the psyche and conduct, is an immense field subject to impacts from social, natural, and ecological variables on individual considerations and sentiments. According to Sugden (2020), the focus of psychological research is on examining the experiences and behaviors of individuals or groups for specific purposes. This evaluation would be focused on mental examination and thoughts foreseeing the human way of behaving and giving a definite writing survey of the speculation.

Concepts of Psychology

Despite the many theories that are associated with each concept, it can be grouped into five main categories. The biological processes, unconscious drives, learned behaviors, thought patterns, and individual experiences and growth are all included in these concepts, which include a variety of approaches to understanding human behavior and psychology. Although each of these ideas has its advantages and disadvantages, combining them all results in a deeper comprehension of human behavior (Mcleod, 2023).

PSYC FPX 4600 Assessment 1 Literature Review

The social idea stands apart from the rest due to its unique perspective on individuals from the natural angle, which tends fundamentally to calculate what upgrades mean for reaction or discernible way of behaving (Li et al., 2021). Alternately, the psychodynamic idea centers around what oblivious personalities and adolescent encounters mean for adulthood conduct. According to Immordino-Yang et al., it considers a person’s past experiences to be a strong predictor of his or her likely behavior toward familiar stimuli. 2019).

This is accomplished by examining the individual’s mental processes, including memory, perception, and attention, as well as their responses to them. Finally, according to Drigas & Mitsea (2002), the biological idea holds that every emotion, belief, and action has a biological basis.

Psychological Research Methods

There are a variety of descriptive research methods that can be used to investigate these ideas. It entails recording what has been observed and analyzing the data that has been recorded. A realistic view of behavioral occurrences was made possible by naturalistic observations in the subject’s natural habitat (France et al., 2019). These habitats might be hospitals, classrooms, or other crucial locations.

An enormous example size of a particular ethnic gathering can be focused on for information assortment through reviews and surveys. Trial research strategies empower the legitimate improvement of speculation to concentrate on the circumstances and logical results connections of the human way of behaving (Scholtz et al., 2020).

PSYC FPX 4600 Assessment 1 Literature Review

The hypothesis of this study is that “students’ ethnicity has a significant impact on the grades they obtain.” The speculation suggests that the grades of the understudies are reliant upon their identity, with nationality being the autonomous variable and grades being the reliant variable. The control factors for this study will be those that could otherwise have an impact on the student’s grades. It includes the sample students’ social status, financial situation, literacy of their parents, and school education quality.

Predict Human Behavior

Human behavior can be predicted despite its diversity. Because human behavior is based on general experiences, this is possible through observation of various psychological concepts (Parlia, 2020). It is plausible to predict that students of different ethnicities will have different educational performances because they will have different general experiences. The human way of behaving is intentionally established from a person’s perspective. Therefore, the study relies heavily on behavioral concepts. A correlation can likewise be utilized to see a deviation in the results of grades of understudies with various ethnic foundations (Zhang et al., 2021).

Value and Limitations of Psychological Concepts

PSYC FPX 4600 Assessment 1 Literature Review

Behavioral and psychodynamic concepts are utilized in this paper. The behavioral theory emphasizes that only observable behaviors should be studied, despite the belief that all actions are learned through interactions with the environment (Veissière et al., 2022). As a result, it follows that students of a particular ethnic group receive a particular treatment at school, resulting in comparatively lower grades. However, this assumption is constrained by the sample size’s precise socioeconomic background.

Because they would not include unobserved factors like the extent to which ethnic discrimination occurs, the behavioral concepts are limited. As a result, behavioral theories would only concentrate on the now. In contrast, the psychodynamic approach emphasizes the significance of drives and the unseen forces that fuel them (Vinney, 2019). As a result, making a connection between the student’s experiences and their academic performance might be beneficial. Consideration is given to the internal environment that influences their behavior.

Ethnicity and students’ academic performance can be studied using these psychological analysis tools. Since psychodynamic ideas wouldn’t address the qualities and organic characteristics of the different social gatherings in the concentrate, however center around the encounters of these people, it should be projected by the speculation (Wiss et al., 2021).

Plausible Hypothesis

According to the study’s hypothesis, there is a significant relationship between students’ grades and their ethnicity. Based on the fact that Blacks, Latinos, and Asians are less likely to get good grades, existing research suggests that ethnicity may play a role in educational performance (Caraballo et al., 2022). Students’ ethnic backgrounds may have an impact on their grades and the dynamics of their education. Consequently, nationality is the free factor, and grades got by understudies are the reliant variable.

PSYC FPX 4600 Assessment 1 Literature Review

The hypothesis that students’ educational performance is influenced by their ethnicity is supported by the literature review. These assumptions are based on fundamental considerations that are connected to the realities of their ethnicity. Due to factors that are associated with their day-to-day lives, minority ethnic students perform relatively poorly (Phojanakong et al., 2019). He discovered that these students had limited access to healthcare facilities, which may have affected how well they did in school. In addition, he discovered that students from ethnic minority backgrounds lacked adequate food security. This extraordinarily added to the psychological pressure of the understudies, who then performed relatively ineffectively in school. Phojanakong and others 2019) have established a plausible connection between the student’s academic performance and their ethnicity.

The recorded occurrences of ethnic and racial separation around the US are rising. Students from ethnic minorities are put under a lot of mental stress in this situation. As per Weeks and Sullivan (2019), understudies who go through a separation have more significant levels of mental pressure. Their review studied north of 60,000 understudies in the US. The study came to the conclusion that students from ethnic minorities had higher rates of depression, behavior disorders, and anxiety. The student’s ethnic background was found to have a strong impact on his mental health.

Students are forced to develop coping mechanisms as a result of these instances or chances of racial discrimination, which discourages them from participating in academic activities. Verkuyten et al.’s research indicate that, 2019) ethnic variety in the homeroom, educator understudy relations, and multicultural instructive conditions assume an unequivocal part in this withdrawal. The study came to the conclusion that students from minority ethnic backgrounds are constantly required to participate in activities outside of the classroom and that a number of factors can have a significant impact on their academic performance.


PSYC FPX 4600 Assessment 1 Literature Review

In conclusion, various psychological concepts contribute to a deeper comprehension of human behavior. Literature suggests a possible link between the student’s grades and their ethnicity. As a result, studies that look into this connection may shed new light on how educational institutions deal with ethnic diversity. In this instance, better planning and response regarding school diversity would result from a deeper comprehension.


Caraballo, C., Ndumele, C. D., Roy, B., Lu, Y., Riley, C., Herrin, J., & Krumholz, H. M. (2022). Trends in racial and ethnic disparities in barriers to timely medical care among adults in the US, 1999 to 2018. JAMA Health Forum3(10).

Drigas, A., & Mitsea, E. (2021). 8 Pillars X 8 Layers Model of Metacognition: Educational Strategies, Exercises &Trainings. International Journal of Online and Biomedical Engineering (IJOE)17(08), 115.

France, E. F., Uny, I., Ring, N., Turley, R. L., Maxwell, M., Duncan, E. A. S., Jepson, R. G., Roberts, R. J., & Noyes, J. (2019). A methodological systematic review of meta-ethnography conduct to articulate the complex analytical phases. BMC Medical Research Methodology19(1). 

Immordino-Yang, M. H., Darling-Hammond, L., & Krone, C. R. (2019). Nurturing nature: How brain development is inherently social and emotional, and what this means for education. Educational Psychologist54(3), 185–204.

Li, X., Zhou, Y., Wong, Y. D., Wang, X., & Yuen, K. F. (2021). What influences panic buying behaviour? A model based on dual-system theory and stimulus-organism-response framework. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction64.

Mcleod, S. (2023, February 20). Psychology perspectives | SimplyPsychology. 

Parlia. (2020, April 7). Psychology can predict human behaviors – Parlia.

Phojanakong, P., Brown Weida, E., Grimaldi, G., Lê-Scherban, F., & Chilton, M. (2019). Experiences of racial and ethnic discrimination are associated with food insecurity and poor health. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health16(22).

Scholtz, S. E., de Klerk, W., & de Beer, L. T. (2020). The use of research methods in psychological research: A systematised review. Frontiers in Research Metrics and Analytics, 5(1). frontiersin. 

Sugden, R. (2020). Hume’s experimental psychology and the idea of erroneous preferences. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization.

Verkuyten, M., Thijs, J., & Gharaei, N. (2019). Discrimination and academic (dis)engagement of ethnic-racial minority students: a social identity threat perspective. Social Psychology of Education22

Veissière, S., Constant, A., Ramstead, M., Friston, K., & Kirmayer, L. (2020). Thinking through other minds: A variational approach to cognition and culture. Behavioral and Brain Sciences,43, E90. 


Vinney, C. (2019, April 22). Psychodynamic theory: Approaches and proponents. Thought Co.

Weeks, M. R., & Sullivan, A. L. (2019). Discrimination matters: Relations of perceived discrimination to student mental health. School Mental Health11(3), 425–437. 

Wiss, D. A., Brewerton, T. D., & Tomiyama, A. J. (2021). Limitations of the protective measure theory in explaining the role of childhood sexual abuse in eating disorders, addictions, and obesity: an updated model with emphasis on biological embedding. Eating and Weight Disorders – Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity

Zhang, W., Shen, Q., Teso, S., Lepri, B., Passerini, A., Bison, I., & Giunchiglia, F. (2021). Putting human behaviour predictability in context. EPJ Data Science, 10(1).