PSYCH 600 Week 2 Growth Stages: Conception to Toddlerhood

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Part I


Nestle is a multinational corporation with headquarters in Vevey, Vaud, Switzerland. It is a global manufacturer of snacks and beverages. Settle makes and creates an extended rundown of items from filtered water to child food. This company has asserted that the cognitive and physical development of infants and toddlers are positively impacted by its baby food products. This organization has likewise looked at reactions to its cases and items before.

Settle advertises its child food items as containing significant compound substances that are capable or possibly add to the solid mental health and working of babies and little children., the company’s website, portrays the company’s claim that it encourages “normal physical growth.” The likelihood that a maker can make a recipe supplement reflecting normally delivered supplements and proteins of any sort, which will uphold and empower the actual development and improvement of a youngster’s comprehension, fine coordinated movements, and actual advancement is questioned and appears to be exceptionally implausible. It is generally accepted that a mother’s milk is the most pure form of food available.

Research and Findings 

Numerous findings indicating the influence of infant formula on a growing child’s development were found after conducting relatively close research on this claim and the information. There was a mixed bag of evidence regarding the significance of the impact that formula feeding has on the physical and cognitive development of young children. According to Silva da Cunha et al., breastfeeding is proven to be the most beneficial method of food source for a newborn baby until approximately six months of age. 2016, Timby and others 2014, and Hoffman, Lien, and Richard (2018)). A newborn baby can benefit from a plethora of beneficial health factors from breast milk. Docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids, for instance, are the two main chemicals found in lactating mothers’ milk.

PSYCH 600 Week 2 Growth Stages: Conception to Toddlerhood

Omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid is the primary structural component of the human brain, cortex, skin, and retina. Eicosanoids and the fatty acid known as arachidonic acid (ARA), which can be found in the phospholipids of the plasma membrane, are linked (Lien, Richard, and Hoffman, 2018). Lauzon-Guillain et al., ( 2017) explain that while these chemicals can be added to baby formula in supplements, the most natural and effective form comes from the mother. Timby et al., ( This assertion is supported by the fact that, in comparison to breast milk, infant formula contains insufficient quantities of the essential components necessary for neurodevelopment. According to Timby et al., “protein content is still 20-30% higher than in human milk” and contributes to later issues with high blood pressure, type 1 diabetes, and type 2 diabetes (Timby et al., 2014).

Over the course of a year, 250 mothers with children who were breastfed, formula fed, or a combination of the two were examined by three Korean researchers. After the Korea-Formative Screen Test for Babies and Youngsters (K-DST) I was led, it showed that fundamentally breastfed newborn children uncovered more grounded interchanges and social associations at the half-year age mark. Children under the age of 12 showed improvements in comprehension, language, and social interaction (Choi, Kang, and Chung, 2018). This study shows that babies who get their nutrition directly from their mother’s breast milk have more advantages than babies who only get formula in the first year of life.

The Controversial History of Nestle In addition, direct revelations about Nestle’s business led to scandals and lawsuits against their marketing schemes, which were blamed for numerous infant deaths worldwide, particularly in countries with poor infrastructure. Nestle, a multinational beverage and snack company, was criticized in the 1970s for advertising their baby formula to new mothers, implying that the powdered substance was a superior alternative for newborns. According to Boyd (2011) and Sethi (1994), critics of the company believed that encouraging new and inexperienced mothers to believe that formula was an adequate replacement for natural breast milk could result in infant mortality.

PSYCH 600 Week 2 Growth Stages: Conception to Toddlerhood

According to Boyd (1994), children who were fed formula had a higher risk of developing long-term illnesses because their mother’s breast milk did not contain important antibodies. According to Sethi, 1994, and Boyd, 2011, it was also believed that because Nestle targeted mothers with lower socioeconomic status, babies would also die as a result of a lack of knowledge regarding the correct preparation of formula or access to sterilized water, both of which are necessary for the sensitivity of an infant’s stomach and digestive tract. Due to this controversy, the Nestle company and its product sales were boycotted for almost two decades. Due to the reasons recorded over, a large number of infants between 0 – a half years old kicked the bucket connected with lack of healthy sustenance and starvation, albeit the organization denied any bad behavior (Solomon, 1981). 

Benefactors and Healthy Development 

Despite the fact that there are positive variables to baby equations like nutrients and supplements, breastfeeding a kid presents a larger number of advantages than taking a chance with dissimilar to its counter item. In an article published on in 2018, a doctor by the name of Elana Peal Ben-Joseph explains the many aspects of breastfeeding that are beneficial to the physical and cognitive development of infants under the age of one. Small children who consume breastmilk are better able to protect themselves from a variety of illnesses, including common ear infections and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)ii, thanks to the abundance of antibodies in the milk. Additionally, the nutrients in breast milk make it easier for babies to digest and prevent bouts of constipation, stomach upset, and even diarrhea (Ben-Joseph, 2018; Timby et al., 2014). Mothers who breastfeed save money by not having to buy multiple bottles, nipples, or even the formula itself, which has been shown to be expensive. Breastfeeding the little one upholds weight reduction and forestalls ailments like coronary illness, hypertension, bosom malignant growth, and significantly more.

Even though breastfeeding appears to be the best option, infant formula does have some benefits. As a substitute, the formula is a supplement that attempts to replicate the nutrients found in the mother’s milk. According to Silva da Cuhna et al., some women find that after giving birth, they do not produce enough milk to adequately feed their children, so they use powdered milk as a “backup” method of feeding. 2016). The mother’s inability to breastfeed can also be caused by a medical condition. (Ben-Joseph, 2018; Lauzon-Guillain, 2018) For instance, a person with an HIV diagnosis cannot breastfeed their newborn for fear of passing the disease on to the child (if not passed along while in utero or during vaginal birth).

PSYCH 600 Week 2 Growth Stages: Conception to Toddlerhood

According to Lin, Richard, and Hoffman (2018), Choi, Kang, and Chung (2018), it is up to the parents to decide whether to breastfeed or formula-feed their children, taking into account both environmental and biological factors that may affect the child’s health and growth potential. Numerous studies and evidence strongly support breastfeeding as the superior method. Even though formula isn’t the most recommended method for feeding young children under the age of one, research shows that it can replicate important ingredients found in mothers’ milk, like DHA and ARA.

Part II

Envision that an authorized clinician in your state freely embraced an item mind no observational proof supporting its cases. Later, it was discovered that the psychologist was receiving a portion of product sales from parents. Is this an offense against the APA’s Code of Ethics? 

This situation is, undoubtedly, an immediate infringement of the APA’siii Governing set of principles seeing as it defies various norms, all things considered. For instance, the psychologist in this scenario violates a portion of each of the Code of Conduct’s general principles. According to Principle A of the APA’s Code of Ethics, psychologists are expected to avoid “misusing their influence” in any way, from personal to political, because they may have an impact on a person’s life. Psychologists are obligated, in accordance with principle B, to cultivate relationships with their colleagues and to maintain an awareness of ethical compliance not only for themselves but also for their peers. Because the psychologist in this example has agreed to back the marketing of products in exchange for a percentage of the funds received from said sales going to parents of children who need services, he or she clearly violates ethical standards: integrity.

PSYCH 600 Week 2 Growth Stages: Conception to Toddlerhood

In the first section of the code of conduct, it is said that a psychologist must not misuse or misrepresent their work, work with ethics committees, avoid conflicts between ethics and organizational demands, report ethical violations, and avoid situations in which ethics, law, and regulations are in conflict. The clinician referenced in the model, disregarded both their clients and colleague when he/she acknowledged financial addition for the underwriting of a result of administration which had no proof of sponsorship its legitimacy and believability.


American Psychological Association (2016). Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. Retrieved from:

Ben-Joseph, E. P. (2018). Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding. Kids Health, June 2018. Retrieved from:

Boyd, C. (2011). The Nestle infant formula controversy and a strange web of subsequent business Scandals. J Bus Ethics. Doi:

Choi, H., Kang, S., and Chung, M. (2018). Early Human Development. Scientific Direct, Volume 127, December 2018, p. 42-47. Doi:

Lauzon-Guillain, B., Davisse-Paturet, C., Lioret, S., Ksiazek, E., Bois, C., Dufourg, M., Bournez,

M., Nicklaus, S., Wagner, S., Charles, M. A. (2017). Use of infants in the ELFE study: The association with social and health-related factors. Wiley Online Library, November 2016. doi:

Lien, E. L., Richard, C., and Hoffman, D. R. (2018). Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids. Scientific Direct, Volume 128, January 2018, p. 26-40. Doi:

Silva da Cuhna, R., Filho, F. L., Rafael, E., Lamy, Z., and Guimaraes de Queiroz, A. (2016).

Breast milk supplementation and preterm infant development after hospital discharge: A randomized clinical trial. Jornal de Pediatria, volume 92, p 42-136. Doi:

Solomon, S. (1981). The controversy over infant formula. The New York Times Magazine. December 1981. Retrieved from:

Timby, N., Domellof, E., Hernell, O., Lonnerdal, B. and Domellof, M. (2014). Neurodevelopment,

Nutrition, and growth until 12 mo. of age in infants fed a low-energy, low protein formula Supplemented with bovine milk fat globule membranes: a randomized controlled trial. American Society for Nutrition, volume 99, p 8-860. Doi: